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- Planting density
- Planting materials
- Holing and planting
- Shoots grown almost parallel to the main stem
- Branch that grow inwardly crossing the main stems
- Weak and diseased branches
- Flower induction and fruit thinning
- Those which develop tertiary and small branches
- Crowded flowers which prevent the normal clustering of fruits
- Short clusters of less than 8 cm.
- Weed control
The recommended distance of planting lansium except duku is 6 x 6 m or a population density of 278 plants/ha. When. Planted as a companion crop of other fruit trees like coconut a lower population density is recommended. Duku, being a spreading-type is recommended at 10 x 10 m of a population of 100 plants/ha.
Grafted plants of 80-100 cm tall are recommended for planting. These plants are approximately 1.5 years old. Older plants of 2.5 years to 3 years mat perform better in the field.
The holes are dug big enough to accommodate the ball of soil supporting the potted plants. In planting the upper level of the soil containing the plant should be about 1.0 inch above the surface of the soil to prevent the accumulating of water during rainy days.
Lanzones grow well in shady areas provided by other crops such as coconut, rambutan, durian, mangosteen and banana. Those planted in open areas must therefore be provided shade like coconut fronds, banana, etc.
Pruning commences when the plant reach 120-140 cm tall. The terminal shoot is cut to a height of 80-100 cm. This induces the formation of three or more secondary trunks originating within 1.0 m from the ground. Then the newly formed trunk is bent outward to insure uniform spreading. During the immature stage, pruning is carried out to remove the following:
Finally, the plants are top pruned to maintain a height of 12-15 ft. Mature plants are pruned after every harvest to remove the diseased and weak branches. Shoots, which grows almost parallel to the secondary stem, are top pruned to maintain the height of 15 ft.
Lanzones is generally intercropped with coconut, durian or mangosteen. It may also be intercropped with timber trees. The crop is seldom grown monocrop. This is because Lansium grows best and produce higher yields when partially shaded. As observed, coconut is one of the best shade crop of Lansium.
To induce heavy flowering and fruiting in Lansium, pruning and extensive irrigation is needed after 2-3 weeks on dry spell. Not all these flowers are allowed to develop into fruits. Thinning is carried out by removing the following flowers:
Following these criteria, only long raceme flowers are left which develop into normally spaced fruits in the secondary and big branches.
Fruit thinning is also carried out to maintain the quality of the fruit particularly in terms of uniform size and to prevent the development of diseases caused by crowded fruits.
The base of the plants should ideally be kept weed-free by regular ring weeding using mechanical method. Cultivation of soil near the plant to control the weed is not advisable. This damages the roots on the surface. Mulching the base of the plants maybe done to reduce the growth of the weeds. Weeds between rows may be suppressed by planting cover crops such as calopogonium and tropical kudzu.
Organic fertilizer is recommended at the rate of 40 kg/tree/year applied once at the onset of the rainy season. Complete fertilizer (15-15-15) is applied twice a year at the beginning and at the end of the rainy season. The fertilizer is divided into four split application and broadcast around the plants every three months. Inorganic fertilizer is supplemented with organic fertilizer like decayed chicken dung at the rate of 5-10 kg/year split into two application. The recommended rate of complete fertilizer is as follows:
|Age of Tree||Rate of Application
|5 and above||equal to its age|
During the 5th year when the trees begin to bear fruit they are fertilized at a rate (kg) equal to its age with the following formulation and timing:
- (15-15-15) - immediately after the last harvest and pruning
- (12-12-24) - a month before flowering
- (13-13-21) - after flowering
- (13-13-21) - when fruits are marble-size
Twice a year, each tree is applied with 20-40 kg of decayed animal manure such as chicken dung. After harvest, foliar fertilizer of (20-10-20) is applied at 15 days interval for at least three times to hasten to recovery of the trees from production stress.
Irrigating Lanzones is basically the same as that of durian and mangosteen using sprinklers or micro sprinklers. In many orchards, irrigation facilities are laid out before planting. During the first year, plants are provided with water every other day. At the second and third years, irrigation frequency is reduced to twice a week. For mature Lansium, irrigation during the dry season has proved to stimulate growth and trigger flowering.
Irrigation can be used to advance the flowering of one to two months provided the floral initials have emerged during the preceding dry period. The inflorescence starts to emerge 7-19 days after watering. Regular irrigation during fruit development prevents the cracking of fruits. A dry spell during the fruiting stage causes serious crop losses due to fruit cracking when water stress is suddenly relived.
Pest and Disease Management
- Leaf feeder. Palpita lacticostalis Gn. (Pyraustidae) attacks seedlings at the nursery stage.
- Gall worm. The species of gall worms are found in the bark. Two species were identified as Dloessa viridid (Zell.) and Gallesiidae andAnaarisia sp. Steinemema carpocapsae nematode is reported to be an effective biological agent to control gall worm insects in Lanzones.
- Stemborer. The pest is known to be prevalent in plants grown in the open and in plants with inadequate pruning, irrigation and fertilization. Chemical spray using monocrotophos or metamidophos is recommended. Burning the infected bark reduces the spread of these pests.
- Red mite. Dicotal is used to control this pest.
- Thrips. Monocrotophos is used to control the thrips.
- Leaf miner and fruit piercing moth. These pests are sprayed with carbamates.
- Rotting fruit. Caused by a fungus (Cylendrocladiumsp.) is alsp a problem during rainy seasons. Removing these fruits by picking from the bunch controls the diseases.
- Scab. This disorder is caused by a fungus and is characterized by the swollen, cracked and dead bark on the surface of the trunk and branches, giving the trees and unhealthy and sickly appearance. The disorder drastically reduces the production of flower panicles resulting to low yield. The spreading of the scab can result in the dying of the branches and stem, making the tree unproductive. This disorder usually occurs in trees planted in the open and in unattended trees. Copper based fungicides effectively control scab.
- Fruit Splitting. Cracking or splitting of the fruit's skin is a common and serious disorder in lansium. This is prevalent when the fruit is about to ripen and is observed to occur after a short dry spell followed by heavy rain. Study shows that rapid absorption of water by the roots of the plants which is transmitted to the fruits. The rapid absorption of the flesh more than what the skin can hold results in the splitting of the skin. Proper and timely irrigation of the trees can correct this disorder. Nutrient deficiency, especially micro nutrients, can also cause fruit splitting. Balance fertilization is needed by the trees.
If provided with high level of fertilization and irrigation, a 12-15 years old Lansium tree may have a maximum yield about 300 kg/tree/year. The largest bunch weighs up to 3 kg, each bunch produces 20-30 fruits.
Flower buds emerge in April to June, fruits are harvested six months later. Fruit maturity begins when the skin color turns from greenish to brownish. The bottom portion of the fully developed fruit, located at the top of an inflorescence, starts to turn frown first. When the last fruit of the bunch turns brown, the whole bunch can be harvested as all fruits are now physiologically mature. Sweetness increases as maturity advances after harvest. Fruits are harvested by climbing the tree and cutting the mature bunches with knives or pruning shears. Care must be taken not to injure the point at which the bunch is attached to the tree because future inflorescence may be borne there later. It is better to use ladders rather than climbing the tree to minimize damage to dormant flower buds. The use of sharp knife is preferred. Harvesting of the fruit is done when 90% or more of the fruits in the cluster becomes mature turning from dull green to dull brown. Harvest by carefully cutting the basal end of the stem of the cluster without damaging the stem or branch. It is also advisable to harvest the fruits in the afternoon when there is no rain. Pack the newly harvested fruits in sturdy containers of 20 to 80 kg capacity to prevent bruising.
At the packaging house the fruits are sorted, cleaned, dried, graded and packed in proper containers with the cushion materials to reduce injury during handling and transport. Newly harvested fruits left one or two nights at room temperature gives the best quality fruits.
Delayed maturity among fruits in the same bunch is a problem in Lanzones production. Fruits should be harvested hen more than 70% of the fruit in a bunch reaches maturity (i.e. the fruit is fully expended with yellow skin). Harvesting young fruits may result to low quality. To insure sweetness and quality of fruits duku is harvested only when ripe. Using ethrel, calcium carbide and smoke as ripening agents adversely affect fruit quality. To extend shelf life to two weeks, fruits should be kept at 10?C with relative humidity of 85-90%. Keeping ripe fruits in lower temperature will change the skin color from yellow to brown.
Some varieties of Lanzones start to bear fruits in 5 years after planting. It is recommended that during the first year of fruiting, only 5.0 kg/tree should be allowed to develop. The fruit is increased yearly as shown in the table below:
- Planting of 2.5 - 3.0 years old LPM grafted Lanzones
- Population of Lanzones at 200 trees/ha
|Years After Planting||Kg/Tree||Kg/Ha|
Lanzones Production; Department of Agriculture Regional Field Unit No. 10, A. Luna St., Cagayan de Oro City; GMA-HVCC No.1 S. 2006