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Lanzones (Lansium domesticum Corr.) is highly complex and varied fruit. In the Philippines, the term Lanzones covers all type or groups belonging to the species Lansium such as Paete, Camiguin, Jolo, Duku and Longkong.
Lanzones is generally grown for fruits. The fruits contains 68% edible portion consisting of, per 100 gram of edible portion, water, 84 g; carbohydrates with the little of protein and fat, 14.2 g; fiber, 0.8 g; ash, 0.6 g; Calcium (Ca), 19 mg; Potassium (K), 275 mg. It also contains vitamin B1, B2 and a little of vitamin C. The sturdy wood is also used for house posts, tool handles and furnitures. The dried peels are burned to drive the mosquitoes away. The bark is used against dysentery and malaria.
Favorable Growing Conditions
Fertile loam, well drained, friable with high organic matter content and slightly acidic soil is recommended for Lansium. Lansium is not recommended in sandy soil, and in soil which are alkaline. Optimum temperature for growth is 25-35°C; less than 600 m above sea level is ideal. Lansium grown in elevation higher than 600 m are generally big seeded. Relative humidity of 70-80% and 120-150 rainy days amounting to 2,000-3,000 mm per year are good for Lansium which are more or less evenly distributed except for a dry period of two months or more to stimulate flowering. Lansium has been noted to grow well in areas with distinct dry and wet conditions but are provided with irrigation.
Langsat has slender trees with upright branches, a scrappy habit and dark green foliage. The fruit spikes are long, carrying 15-25 ovoid thin-skinned fruits that exude latex until fully ripe. Included under this category are the Paete and Camiguin of the Philippines.
Duku is a spreading tree, with dense dome-shaped canopy of bright-green leaves, bearing shorter spikes, usually with few fruits. The fruits are normally larger and more rounded than the langsat fruit with a thick skin (up to 6 mm) and relatively free from latex. Duku fruits are generally sweet and aromatic. Due to thick skin, the shelf life of duku is generally sweet and aromatic. Due to the thick skin, the shelf life of duku is generally four to seven days longer than the langsat fruits.
Duku-langsat is intermediate between duku and the langsat. The best type under this group is the longkong.
The nursery infrastructure includes sowing beds, irrigation system and plant shades.
- Irrigation System
- Production of rootstocks
- Seed preparation
- Seedling transplanting
- Asexual propagation
Nursery plants are to be provided with shade that screens off sunlight by 50-60% depending on the age and size of the seedling. Newly germinated seedling and up to six (6) months should be provided 70% shading. Older seedlings are provided with 50% shade. The shading materials may include natural trees such as lanzones, rambutan, durian, acacia, banana and coconut.
The nursery should be provided with a good irrigation system such as garden hoses, sprinklers, etc. Watering should be carried out every other day during dry months or as soon as the soil surface starts to dry up. Make sure that source of water of irrigation is clean and free from contaminations.
Lansium maybe propagated sexually by seeds and asexually by in arching, marcotting, stem cutting and grafting. Plants from seeds produce fruits similar to the parent plants as the fruit develops apomictically. However, it grows very tall and matures later as compared to asexually propagated plants. Thus, asexual propagation is preferred. Those propagated from seeds mature in 7-8 years while those propagated asexually bear fruits in 5-6 years. Seedling grown from seeds of any type of Lansium may be utilized as rootstock. Duku and Jolo Lanzones seeds are the best rootstock as they grow faster and more vigorous than other types.
Seeds from mature fruits are extracted and the flesh attached to the seeds are completely removed after soaking in the water to ferment the mucilage for 24-48 hours. The seeds are cleaned by removing the pulp or mucilage and thoroughly washed in running water. The seeds are then dried and coated by spraying with suitable fungicide to protect them from decay organism. Air dried seeds should be sown immediately as delaying sowing can result to poor germination. Seeds, however, when air-dried and placed in polybags maybe stored up to 14 days in a refrigerator, at 4-5?C. Seeds are to be sown in a mixture of sand, decayed rice hulls and ordinary garden soil on a 1:1:1 proportion. Sowing of seeds maybe done in close proximity to each other and in seedbeds with 70% shade.
After two weeks, the germinated seedlings with needle-like shoots maybe pulled out and transplanted in potting medium which are contained in plastic bags. Lansium seeds are polyembryonic and produce two or more seedlins/seeds. These seedlings sprouting from one seed should be separated and transplanted individually.
The potting medium should consists mainly of 50% garden soil mixed with 25% decaying rice hulls and 25% organic matter like decayed chicken dung. For purpose of potting, 8" x 12" plastic bags are used.
Fertilization must be carried out on monthly basis using ammonium sulfate (21-0-0) or urea (46-0-0) followed every three months with complete (14-14-14) fertilizer. Water the seedlings regularly when rain is not available to ensure fast growth so the plant can be ready for field planting or propagation in 1.5 years. The potted plants should be controlled of insect pests and diseases. Seedlings are ready for grafting in 8-10 months after transplanting under 50% shading.
The most common method of asexual propagation is by conventional cleft grafting similar to mango and durian. A modified wedge-grafting method is also found very good for seedling propagation. This method allows mass propagation using small and a young rootstocks of 8-10 months to bigger scions of 50-70cm tall and with the leaves of the scion remaining intact. In the process big asexually propagated plants are produced in a short time. In this method, rootstock is cut vertically about 6 inches above the soil medium. The upper part of the cut rootstock is then slit in half vertically to a length of 2.4 c. (1 inch). Then a scion of 50-70 cm in length and 6-10 mm in diameter (much bigger than the rootstock) with 5-7 leaves is wedge-cut at the basal end and inserted to the slit of the rootstock. A tiny plastic ribbon is used to tie together the stock and scion to promote union and callus formation. The newly propagated plants are transferred in bulk inside the plastic tunnels or in highly transparent plastic bags. To maintain a high humidity of 90% or more thereby promoting the union between the rootstock and the scion. Union usually takes place in 15 days. With modified wedge-grafting method of propagation, nurserymen can propagate at the rate 500-1000 plants/day with 90% success or higher. Upon the union of the stock and the scion, the plants are removed from the plastic tunnels or bags and kept in the nursery 8-12 months for further development. After such period, the propagated plants are ready for field planting or transferred to bigger bags for the production of large-sized planting materials (LPM).
For marcotting, a mature branch is used. A ring of bark 3-4 cm long is removed from the selected branch 15-30 cm from them. The cut portion is provided with soil medium and wrapped in plastics. Roots develop in 45 days.
Lanzones is also propagated by stem cutting. The cuttings of green stems with leaves are obtained from mature terminal shoots of healthy stock plants. The basal end of the cutting is soaked in an Indole Butyric Acid (IBA) at 10,000 ppm to promote rooting. Then the cutting are placed in plastic mist chamber or moist growth medium and kept under shade. Rooting takes place in 60-80 days with 70-100% success. Propagation by cutting can also be used for Paete and Camiguin varieties.
Before planting, plow the field 20-30 cm deep and pulverize the soil to provide fine texture.